Kosovo seeks full integration into the international community, and has pursued bilateral recognitions and memberships in international organizations. Likewise, the peoples of the two countries share common traditions and folklore. now. However, close trade, remittance, and banking sector ties with Greece and Italy make Albania vulnerable to spillover effects of possible debt crises and weak growth in the euro zone. Like in 1945 'Those people won't tolerate difference,' Kelmendi says of nationalists. Remittances from the diaspora - located mainly in Germany, Switzerland, and the Nordic countries - are estimated to account for about 17% of GDP and international donor assistance accounts for approximately 10% of GDP. Serbia continues to reject Kosovo's independence, but the two countries agreed in April 2013 to normalize their relations through EU-facilitated talks, which produced several subsequent agreements the parties are engaged in implementing, though they have not yet reached a comprehensive normalization of relations. 'They don't like the others'. Since then, over 100 countries have recognized Kosovo, and it has joined numerous international organizations. Time in. It was the banner of a Greater Albania, the nationalist dream of Tirana, that would like to combine in a single country part of Montenegro, Serbia, Macedonia, Greece and, obviously, Kosovo. There is no major difference between Albania and Kosovo since both countries are majorly populated by ethnic Albanians, how ever there is a difference in their dialect since Albanians from Kosovo speak Gegë dialect and most of the Albanians from Albania speak Tosk dialect, Both countries listen to the same music, both countries are majorly Muslim and some Christian and Orthodox, The Economy of Albania … In 2014, nearly 60% of customs duty-eligible imports into Kosovo were EU goods. In October 2008, Serbia sought an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on the legality under international law of Kosovo's declaration of independence. Kosovo held its most recent national and municipal elections in 2017. Albania’s electricity supply is uneven despite upgraded transmission capacities with neighboring countries. In the early 1990s, Albania ended 46 years of isolated communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. While Kosovo’s economy continued to make progress, unemployment has not been reduced, nor living standards raised, due to lack of economic reforms and investment. A UN-led process began in late 2005 to determine Kosovo's final status. Since 2015, Albania has launched an ambitious program to increase tax compliance and bring more businesses into the formal economy. Kosovo's citizens are the second poorest in Europe, after Moldova, with a per capita GDP (PPP) of $10,400 in 2017. Kosovo experienced its first federal budget deficit in 2012, when government expenditures climbed sharply. The red-and-black flag is our flag, everywhere where Albanians live. These are the two dialects of Albanian, but they carry with them many other associations. The Republic of Kosovo, a country in the Balkans. In August 2015, as part of its EU-facilitated normalization process with Serbia, Kosovo signed agreements on telecommunications and energy distribution, but disagreements over who owns economic assets, such as the Trepca mining conglomerate, within Kosovo continue. During the medieval period, Kosovo became the center of a Serbian Empire and saw the construction of many important Serb religious sites, including many architecturally significant Serbian Orthodox monasteries. The government is focused on the simplification of licensing requirements and tax codes, and it entered into a new arrangement with the IMF for additional financial and technical support. became the tools of the law enforcement agencies in the suppression of Kosovo Albanian civil and political rights, and, accompanied by torture and ill-treatment, were applied as a means to intimidate the entire Kosovo Albanian society. Kosovo was part of Serbia until an armed uprising by the ethnic Albanian majority population in 1998-1999 triggered a bloody Serb crackdown. It's Gheg / Tosk. Kosovo's tie to the euro has helped keep core inflation low. time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, ... each star represents one of the major ethnic groups of Kosovo: Albanians, Serbs, Turks, Gorani, Roma, and Bosniaks . J2 is high among South-Albanians, it's also found as the 3rd highest in Kosovo Albanians. The Albanian Government has strengthened tax collection amid moderate public wage and pension increases in an effort to reduce its budget deficit. Albania allied itself first with the USSR (until 1960), and then with China (to 1978). FRN Editorial Board By Grey Carter – The notorious Kosovo Albanian jihadist, Lavdrim Mudzaheri ( Albanian: Lavdrim […] Albania, a formerly closed, centrally planned state, is a developing country with a modern open-market economy. Kosovo also seeks memberships in the UN and in NATO. Kosovo signed a Stabilization and Association Agreement with the EU in 2015, and was named by a 2018 EU report as one of six Western Balkan countries that will be able to join the organization once it meets the criteria to accede. Kosovo. 05:09:16am. On 17 February 2008, the Kosovo Assembly declared Kosovo independent. A country in south-eastern Europe. As for moving to Albania, I don’t think I ever will, I already moved to the west. The difference between Serbs and Croats on the one hand, and Albanians on the other, is that most Serbs and Croats lived in one country until 1991. note: one of only two national flags that uses a map as a design element; the flag of Cyprus is the other . Originally Posted by Dianatomia. Albanian literature in Kosovo proceeded to develop differently than it did in Albania, where the communist government imposed more severe ideological constraints. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License; additional terms may apply. That's a nationalistic delirium, like believing in a Greater Albania or some Golden Age from the past.' these people come from the gutter and act like drugees … inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: International law organization participation, Household income or consumption by percentage share, Distribution of family income - Gini index, Stock of direct foreign investment - at home, Electricity - installed generating capacity, Electricity - from other renewable sources, Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy, Civil aircraft registration country code prefix, Refugees and internally displaced persons. Kosovo was part of Serbia until an armed uprising by the ethnic Albanian majority population in 1998-1999 triggered a bloody Serb crackdown. Besides Albanians are … However, it must be noted that there is a stark difference between Kosovo Serbs and Kosovo Albanians in almost every subject. note: data are in 2017 dollars; unreported output may be as large as 50% of official GDP, note: includes those estimated to be employed in the gray economy, note: these official rates may not include those working at near-subsistence farming, note: Kosovo has a large informal sector that may not be reflected in these data, note: assigned as a temporary code under UN Security Council resolution 1244/99, Serbia with several other states protest the US and other states' recognition of Kosovo's declaration of its status as a sovereign and independent state in February 2008; ethnic Serbian municipalities along Kosovo's northern border challenge final status of Kosovo-Serbia boundary; NATO-led Kosovo Force peacekeepers under UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo authority continue to ensure a safe and secure environment and freedom of movement for all Kosovo citizens; Kosovo and North Macedonia completed demarcation of their boundary in September 2008; Kosovo ratified the border demarcation agreement with Montenegro in March 2018, but the actual demarcation has not been completed, Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, between Greece to the south and Montenegro and Kosovo to the north, Southeast Europe, between Serbia and Macedonia, mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter, influenced by continental air masses resulting in relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns; Mediterranean and alpine influences create regional variation; maximum rainfall between October and December, mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast, flat fluvial basin at an elevation of 400-700 m above sea level surrounded by several high mountain ranges with elevations of 2,000 to 2,500 m, petroleum, natural gas, coal, bauxite, chromite, copper, iron ore, nickel, salt, timber, hydropower, arable land, nickel, lead, zinc, magnesium, lignite, kaolin, chrome, bauxite, deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and domestic effluents; air pollution from industrial and power plants; loss of biodiversity due to lack of resources for sound environmental management, air pollution (pollution from power plants and nearby lignite mines take a toll on people's health); water scarcity and pollution; land degradation, strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea), the 41-km long Nerodimka River divides into two branches each of which flows into a different sea: the northern branch flows into the Sitnica River, which via the Ibar, Morava, and Danube Rivers ultimately flows into the Black Sea; the southern branch flows via the Lepenac and Vardar Rivers into the Aegean Sea, a fairly even distribution, with somewhat higher concentrations of people in the western and central parts of the country, population clusters exist throughout the country, the largest being in the east in and around the capital of Pristina, Albanian 82.6%, Greek 0.9%, other 1% (including Vlach, Romani, Macedonian, Montenegrin, and Egyptian), unspecified 15.5%, Albanians 92.9%, Bosniaks 1.6%, Serbs 1.5%, Turk 1.1%, Ashkali 0.9%, Egyptian 0.7%, Gorani 0.6%, Romani 0.5%, other/unspecified 0.2%, Muslim 56.7%, Roman Catholic 10%, Orthodox 6.8%, atheist 2.5%, Bektashi (a Sufi order) 2.1%, other 5.7%, unspecified 16.2%, Muslim 95.6%, Roman Catholic 2.2%, Orthodox 1.5%, other 0.1%, none 0.1%, unspecified 0.6%, Albanian 98.8% (official - derived from Tosk dialect), Greek 0.5%, other 0.6% (including Macedonian, Romani, Vlach, Turkish, Italian, and Serbo-Croatian), unspecified 0.1%, Albanian (official) 94.5%, Bosnian 1.7%, Serbian (official) 1.6%, Turkish 1.1%, other 0.9% (includes Romani), unspecified 0.1%, 12 counties (qarqe, singular - qark); Berat, Diber, Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Korce, Kukes, Lezhe, Shkoder, Tirane, Vlore, 38 municipalities (komunat, singular - komuna (Albanian); opstine, singular - opstina (Serbian)); Decan (Decani), Dragash (Dragas), Ferizaj (Urosevac), Fushe Kosove (Kosovo Polje), Gjakove (Dakovica), Gjilan (Gnjilane), Gllogovc (Glogovac), Gracanice (Gracanica), Hani i Elezit (Deneral Jankovic), Istog (Istok), Junik, Kacanik, Kamenice (Kamenica), Kline (Klina), Kllokot (Klokot), Leposaviq (Leposavic), Lipjan (Lipljan), Malisheve (Malisevo), Mamushe (Mamusa), Mitrovice e Jugut (Juzna Mitrovica) [South Mitrovica], Mitrovice e Veriut (Severna Mitrovica) [North Mitrovica], Novoberde (Novo Brdo), Obiliq (Obilic), Partesh (Partes), Peje (Pec), Podujeve (Podujevo), Prishtine (Pristina), Prizren, Rahovec (Orahovac), Ranillug (Ranilug), Shterpce (Strpce), Shtime (Stimlje), Skenderaj (Srbica), Suhareke (Suva Reka), Viti (Vitina), Vushtrri (Vucitrn), Zubin Potok, Zvecan, 28 November 1912 (from the Ottoman Empire), Independence Day, 28 November (1912), also known as Flag Day, civil law system except in the northern rural areas where customary law known as the "Code of Leke" is still present, civil law system; note - the European Union Rule of Law Mission (EULEX) retained limited executive powers within the Kosovo judiciary for complex cases from 2008 to 2018, Alliance for the Future of Kosovo or AAK [Ramush HARADINAJ], BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EITI (compliant country), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, IBRD, IDA, IFC, IMF, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OIF (observer), Ambassador Yuri KIM (since 27 January 2020), Ambassador Vlora CITAKU (since 17 September 2015), red with a black two-headed eagle in the center; the design is claimed to be that of 15th-century hero Georgi Kastrioti SKANDERBEG, who led a successful uprising against the Ottoman Turks that resulted in a short-lived independence for some Albanian regions (1443-78); an unsubstantiated explanation for the eagle symbol is the tradition that Albanians see themselves as descendants of the eagle; they refer to themselves as "Shqiptare," which translates as "sons of the eagle", centered on a dark blue field is a gold-colored silhouette of Kosovo surmounted by six white, five-pointed stars arrayed in a slight arc; each star represents one of the major ethnic groups of Kosovo: Albanians, Serbs, Turks, Gorani, Roma, and Bosniaks, has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction, has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt, black double-headed eagle; national colors: red, black, six, five-pointed, white stars; national colors: blue, gold, white, food; footwear, apparel and clothing; lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower, mineral mining, construction materials, base metals, leather, machinery, appliances, foodstuffs and beverages, textiles, wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, olives and olive oil, grapes; meat, dairy products; sheep and goats, wheat, corn, berries, potatoes, peppers, fruit; dairy, livestock; fish, apparel and clothing, footwear; asphalt, metals and metallic ores, crude oil; cement and construction materials, vegetables, fruits, tobacco, mining and processed metal products, scrap metals, leather products, machinery, appliances, prepared foodstuffs, beverages and tobacco, vegetable products, textiles and apparel, Italy 53.4%, Kosovo 7.7%, Spain 5.6%, Greece 4.2%, Albania 16%, India 14%, North Macedonia 12.1%, Serbia 10.6%, Switzerland 5.6%, Germany 5.4%, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, chemicals, foodstuffs, livestock, wood, petroleum, chemicals, machinery, minerals, textiles, stone, ceramic and glass products, electrical equipment, Italy 28.5%, Turkey 8.1%, Germany 8%, Greece 8%, China 7.9%, Serbia 4%, Germany 12.4%, Serbia 12.3%, Turkey 9.6%, China 9.1%, Italy 6.4%, North Macedonia 5.1%, Albania 5%, Greece 4.4%, Land Forces Command, Navy Force Command (includes Coast Guard), Air Forces Command, Support Command, Training and Doctrination Command, Kosovo Security Force (KSF): Land Force Command; National Guard Command; Logistic Command and Doctrine and Training Command, 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation. I think that Albanians will be even more closer to Greeks if the Ghegs from Northern Albania and the Tosks south of the Drin riven (Greek historical cultural sphere) will be categorized seperately. Remittances, a significant catalyst for economic growth, declined from 12-15% of GDP before the 2008 financial crisis to 5.8% of GDP in 2015, mostly from Albanians residing in Greece and Italy. The conflict gained widespread international attention and was resolved with the intervention of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The majority of the population of Kosovo – its Albanian majority – wanted independence. An analysis from March 2019 by Mr. Carter reveals how important Albanians are to ISIS and other terrorist groups in Syria and in light of recent attempts of “reintegration” of terrorists from Europe, it’s more relevant than ever. An unemployment rate of 33%, and a youth unemployment rate near 60%, in a country where the average age is 26, encourages emigration and fuels a significant informal, unreported economy. A Euro2016 qualifier betweeen Serbia and Albania was called off on October 14, 2014, after fights among players and supporters, sparked by a drone with a pro-Kosovo … The central Balkans were part of the Roman and Byzantine Empires before ethnic Serbs migrated to the territories of modern Kosovo in the 7th century. In 2016, Kosovo implemented the Stabilization and Association Agreement (SAA) negotiations with the EU, focused on trade liberalization. Goals Scored, Goals Conceded, Clean Sheets, BTTS and more. Serbia undertook repressive measures against the Kosovar Albanians in the 1990s, provoking a Kosovar Albanian insurgency. Your time is exact! Therefore, due to the limited space of the article, only general results that reflect the attitudes of the majority of the population will be presented. but wow they are really the most annoying poeple on the face of the earth. The 2006-07 negotiations ended without agreement between Belgrade and Pristina, though the UN issued a comprehensive report on Kosovo's final status that endorsed independence. For the Kosovo flag, I … • Rape and other forms of … Central revenues could not sustain these increases, and the government was forced to reduce its planned capital investments. Albania joined NATO in April 2009 and in June 2014 became an EU candidate. note: Kosovo, a neutral term, is sometimes also used as a noun or adjective as in Kosovo Albanian, Kosovo Serb, Kosovo minority, or Kosovo citizen Ethnic groups Albanian 82.6%, Greek 0.9%, other 1% (including Vlach, Romani, Macedonian, Montenegrin, and Egyptian), unspecified 15.5% (2011 est.) Difference. Also, with help from international donors, the government is taking steps to improve the poor road and rail networks, a long standing barrier to sustained economic growth. Albanians in Albania are closer to Kosovar Albanians. With international assistance, Kosovo has been able to privatize a majority of its state-owned enterprises. The ICJ released the advisory opinion in July 2010 affirming that Kosovo's declaration of independence did not violate general principles of international law, UN Security Council Resolution 1244, or the Constitutive Framework. Albania–Kosovo relations (Albanian: Marrëdhëniet Shqiptaro-Kosovare) refer to the current, cultural and historical relations of Albania and Kosovo. One of five administrative districts of the above region as viewed by the Serbian government. Note: We are talking about the country of North Macedonia, which recently changed its name at the beginning of 2019 after a name dispute with Greece. The international terms "Albania" and "Albanian" are based on the root *alb- , *arb- , which also is the source of the word Arberesh , which is used to describe the Italo-Albanians of southern Italy.That root also appears as *lab- in Labëria , referring to the southern Albanian region from Vlorë southward to the Greek border, and *rab- in early Slavic, as in raban , rabanski ("Albanian"). The difference from Time.is was +0.031 seconds (±0.289 seconds). Kosovo Albanians look at Albanian Albanians as inferior, because the Albanian recent history after WW2. Gheg is spoken in the northern part (above the River Shkumbin) of Albania and in Kosovo. Since 2008 Kosovo is independent from Serbia, after a referendum not recognized by Belgrade, and it represents a unique on the international scene. Albania has an embassy in Pristina and Kosovo has an embassy in Tirana. residency requirement for naturalization: (447 km of major railway lines and 230 km of secondary lines). This in turn prompted a NATO bombing campaign against Serbia to force its troops out of Kosovo. Albania managed to weather the first waves of the global financial crisis but, the negative effects of the crisis caused a significant economic slowdown. Albanians seem closer to Greeks than to Albanians from Kosovo. Predictions & Head to Head stats for Albania vs. Kosovo in the International Friendlies. Inefficient, near-subsistence farming is common - the result of small plots, limited mechanization, and a lack of technical expertise. The defeat of Serbian forces at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 led to five centuries of Ottoman rule during which large numbers of Turks and Albanians moved to Kosovo. Kosovo enjoys lower labor costs than the rest of the region. Serbia reacquired control over the region from the Ottoman Empire during the First Balkan War of 1912. Demonstrating Kosovo’s development into a sovereign, multi-ethnic, democratic country the international community ended the period of Supervised Independence in 2012. MED also has plans for the rehabilitation of an older bituminous-fired power plant, Kosovo B, and the development of a coal mine that could supply both plants. Gheg is spoken mostly in the northern parts of where Albanian is spoken. A large informal economy and a weak energy and transportation infrastructure remain obstacles. They had been fighting a low-level insurgency for a number of years with a view to obtaining that goal. Albania has made progress in its democratic development since it first held multiparty elections in 1991, but deficiencies remain. By the end of the 19th century, Albanians replaced Serbs as the dominant ethnic group in Kosovo. The Serbs - many of whom viewed Kosovo as their cultural heartland - instituted a new constitution in 1989 revoking Kosovo's autonomous status. “In terms of the national aspect, there is a big difference between the Albanian and Kosovo flags. Minerals and metals production - including lignite, lead, zinc, nickel, chrome, aluminum, magnesium, and a wide variety of construction materials - once the backbone of industry, has declined because of aging equipment and insufficient investment, problems exacerbated by competing and unresolved ownership claims of Kosovo’s largest mines. In the political context of the period, it was seen as tantamount to driving a wedge between the Albanians in Kosova and those in Albania, thus dividing and weakening the Albanian … The agricultural sector, which accounts for more than 40% of employment but less than one quarter of GDP, is limited primarily to small family operations and subsistence farming, because of a lack of modern equipment, unclear property rights, and the prevalence of small, inefficient plots of land. We, the Albanians, are not alone in Kosovo, even if … Kosovo maintained a Serb majority for centuries, but in the late 1800s it became a seat of Albanians’ national awakening, and eventually gained an ethnic Albanian majority. Although Albania's economy continues to grow, it has slowed, and the country is still one of the poorest in Europe. The practical difference is that Kosovo Albanians are Muslim, while Albanian Albanians are Catholic. See Wiktionary Terms of Use for details. The government, led by Prime Minister MUSTAFA - a trained economist - recently made several changes to its fiscal policy, expanding the list of duty-free imports, decreasing the Value Added Tax (VAT) for basic food items and public utilities, and increasing the VAT for all other goods. However, the government has recently taken steps to stem non-technical losses and has begun to upgrade the distribution grid. After international attempts to mediate the conflict failed, a three-month NATO military operation against Serbia beginning in March 1999 forced the Serbs to agree to withdraw their military and police forces from Kosovo. Albania’s three-year IMF program, an extended fund facility arrangement, was successfully concluded in February 2017. Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License; A disputed region in the Balkans, considered by the Republic of Serbia to be one of its two autonomous provinces. Kosovo’s two million people are approximately 90 percent Albanian and nine percent Serb. Official name: Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë). Kosovo conflict, (1998–99) conflict in which ethnic Albanians opposed ethnic Serbs and the government of Yugoslavia (the rump of the former federal state, comprising the republics of Serbia and Montenegro) in Kosovo. In some parts of Albania, the northeastern Gheg is spoken, but it is central that is more widely spoken and followed by northwestern and southern, … In May 2014, the government introduced a 25% salary increase for public sector employees and an equal increase in certain social benefits. There is no such thing as hatred between Kosovo Albanians and Albanians from Albania. The country continues to face high public debt, exceeding its former statutory limit of 60% of GDP in 2013 and reaching 72% in 2016. One reason - and this is the same reason that makes your question tricky to answer - is that the divide between Albanians isn't really Albania / Kosovo. The official currency of Kosovo is the euro, but the Serbian dinar is also used illegally in Serb majority communities. Time in Kosovo now. they are soo stuck up and think that the world revolves around thme. Kosovo and Albania on Tuesday signed a landmark agreement to coordinate their foreign policies and unify their diplomatic missions – though some experts doubt it will mean much in practice. well thats more of people from albania than the ones from kosovo. However, high levels of corruption, little contract enforcement, and unreliable electricity supply have discouraged potential investors. When I cross the border I do notice a difference, but only because I go from Prizren (2nd largest city in Kosovo) to Kukës, a pretty poor and sparsely populated region of Albania. As proper nouns the difference between kosovo and albania is that kosovo is a disputed region in the balkans, considered by the republic of serbia to be one of its … Inward foreign direct investment has increased significantly in recent years as the government has embarked on an ambitious program to improve the business climate through fiscal and legislative reforms. The transition has proven challenging as successive governments have tried to deal with high unemployment, widespread corruption, dilapidated infrastructure, powerful organized crime networks, and combative political opponents. The opinion was closely tailored to Kosovo's unique history and circumstances. After World War II, Kosovo's present-day boundaries were established when Kosovo became an autonomous province of Serbia in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (S.F.R.Y.). There are 1.6 million Albanians living in Kosovo - officially 92.93% of Kosovo's entire population - and Albanian is an official language of Kosovo. In June 2009, Kosovo joined the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, the Central Europe Free Trade Area (CEFTA) in 2006, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in 2012, and the Council of Europe Development Bank in 2013. well i'm albanian but i'm from debar in macedonia and let me tell you one thing about these people in albanian and kosovo. Communist partisans took over the country in 1944. In Kosovo, they usually speak the Gheg Albanian, the northeastern dialect, to be exact. Kosovo's Albanian leaders responded in 1991 by organizing a referendum declaring Kosovo independent. Kosovo Albanians belong to the ethnic Albanian sub-group of Ghegs, who inhabit the north of Albania, north of the Shkumbin river, Kosovo, southern Serbia, and western parts of North Macedonia. Complex tax codes and licensing requirements, a weak judicial system, endemic corruption, poor enforcement of contracts and property issues, and antiquated infrastructure contribute to Albania's poor business environment making attracting foreign investment difficult. UN Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999) placed Kosovo under a transitional administration, the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), pending a determination of Kosovo's future status. note: Kosovo, a neutral term, is sometimes also used as a noun or adjective as in Kosovo Albanian, Kosovo Serb, Kosovo minority, or Kosovo citizen, note: these estimates may under-represent Serb, Romani, and some other ethnic minorities because they are based on the 2011 Kosovo national census, which excluded northern Kosovo (a largely Serb-inhabited region) and was partially boycotted by Serb and Romani communities in southern Kosovo, note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice, note: in municipalities where a community's mother tongue is not one of Kosovo's official languages, the language of that community may be given official status according to the 2006 Law on the Use of Languages, note: in August 2015, the Kosovo Assembly approved a constitutional amendment that establishes the Kosovo Relocated Specialist Judicial Institution, also referred to as the Kosovo Specialist Chambers or "Special Court"; the court, located at the Hague in the Netherlands, began operating in late 2016 and has jurisdiction to try crimes against humanity, war crimes, and other crimes under Kosovo law that occurred in the 1998-2000 period, note: one of only two national flags that uses a map as a design element; the flag of Cyprus is the other, note: adopted 2008; Kosovo chose to exclude lyrics in its anthem so as not to offend the country's minority ethnic groups.

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